Tuesday, 6 September 2011


          There are number of infectious disease, case by micro-organism, which the reproductive organs. The micro-organism of syphilis and gonorhoea cannot survive outside the body,so these disease are transmitted from person to person only by sexual intercourse. The virus of non-specific urethritis and the fungus  candila may be spread by touching the sex organ of an infected person or by using a contaminated towel.
            Certain sexually transmitted dieases are some times called veneral diseases. The two most important ones are syphilis and gonorrhoea, though in western country at least, a third one called non-specific urethritis occus as frequently as gonorrhoea. More recently, a sexually transmitted virus called genital herps has also become more widespread in western countries. Although outbreaks of this disease cannot be cured and it seems to produce a lifelong infection with periodic outbreak.
            In my next post, I will be talking about the sexually trasmitted diseases above one by one. Moreover if you need an expert advise on good Health and Diseases, please kindly leave your comment on the comment box below and I will reply you with all necessary information you needed. Thanks.

Monday, 5 September 2011


Good health is something that many of us take for granted. It is much more than an absence of disease. Good health involves all the organs of the body wor king properly. It also involves feeling both in body and mind.
Personer Health
1.Diet: to some extent, obtaining a balance diet deepends on what you can afford. However , with a little knowledge it should be possible for most people to obtain sufficient proteins, vitamins, salts, and fibre and to avoid excesses of carbohydrate and fats.
2.Personal Hygiene: Simple precautions, such as washing your hand after going to toilet or latrine, and before handling food can greatly reduce the chance of picking up an intestinal diseases. Such habit  will also prevent you from passing disease onto other people.
            Washing your whole body and changing your clothes will help prevent fungus infection and will remove body parasites which might be carrying disease organism.
3.Domestic Hygiene:  Keeping cooking pots, plates, cups, and other utensils clean will cut down the numbers of bacteria on them. Keeping flies out of the house , or at least away from food and utencils,removes one source of contamination.

4.Clean food and water : fruit and vegetables, which are eaten without cooking, should be washed in clean water in case they are contaminated with disease organisms. When cooking food, it is important to heat it to a high enough temperature to kill bacteria and tapeworm cysts . Cooked food should be eaten at once or stored in a cool, fly-proof place.
Unless you have a supply of water which you know is clean and free from bacteria, it is a sensible precaution to boil any water which is to be used for drinking.

5.Avoiding infected water: Unless you know that a pond, lake or river is free from disease bacteria and from the water snails which carry schistosomiasis, you should avoid paddling, bathing or washing in such places.
6.Not smoking:  It now well established that smoking, especially cigarettes, causes bronchitis, emphysema, atherosclerosis, heart attacks and lung cancer. It is clearly sensible not to take up smoking or, if you have started , you you give it up.

7.Excercise and relaxation: Regular vigorous exercise during work or recreation has avery beneficial effect on heath . It seems to maintain the heart and circulatory system in good working order  and also promotes a positive feeling of well-being.

Sunday, 4 September 2011


Paralysis: Is anabily to move certain muscles. This is usually a failure of the motor nerve  to carry impulse to the muscle s concerned.
            If motor nerve to a limb are cut as a result of an accident, the muscle cannot be made to contract. If the damage is not extensive, the nerve may grow again.
            Spinal injury may lead to paralysis. If the spina chord is damage by the disease or injury, the part below the damage area may have neither motor function nor sensation. Poliomyelitics sometimes result in paralysis because the polio virus affect the motor nerve of the spinal chord.
Stroke usually lead to partial paralysis because the blood supply to certain brain  cells is off for a time.
            Hysterical paralysis I is a psycological disorder. Although there is no sign of disease or obvious damage of the brain, the is unable to move one or more limbs.  If the speech centre id affected, the patient may loose power of speech. If, under the influence of drugs or hynosis, the patient regains the use of affected part, ths is an indication that the cause of the paralysis is psychological or pyschosomatic  and not the result of injury or infection.
Convulsions:    this is involuntory burst of the muscles contraction involving the face and the limbs. It result from an irritation of motor nerve cells in the brain and spinal chord. In diabetics convulsion may occur if the brain cells are deprive of sugar, in tetanus the convulsions are the result of tetanus toxin acting on the neuronin the spinal chord. In young children the most usually cause of convulsion is high temperature resulting from an infection illness.
            Hysterical convulsions are produce by a psychological state rather by any disease or disorder of the nerve system. They may be induced by the fervour of the religion or ritual ceremony energetic, rhythmic dancing movements.
            The treatment of the convulsions is injection of anti-convulsant, tranquilizing drugs. If the causes of convulsion is an abnormal high body temperature, attempt should be made to lower the temperature as soon as possible.
Epilepsy   this arises in the brain as a result of a large number of nerve cells  all firing off impulses at the same time. The affect may  be a brief loss of conciousness; the person just stop what he is doing and just stares blankly ahead for 30seconds. This form of epilepsy is sometimes called ‘petit mal’. It ocurs most offen in children and young people and dissapear as they get older.
            The more severe form of epilepsy is called “grand mal” and involves loss of conciousness, falling over and convulsion lasting for a minute or two. The patient sometimes has sensations that tell him or her that an attack is about to happen.
Anybody may experience epilepsy as a result of head injury, meningitis or a blockage of some blood vessels in the brain. People described as epileptics have attack without any obvious cause although it is likely that there is some  small area of damage in the brain which set off the discharge of nervous impulses.
Epileptic are normally in other respect and are not mentally retarded unless their disease is the result of serious brain damage at birth. Because epileptic attacks cannot usually be predicted and often involve a temporary loss of conciousness, it is important that epileptics should not work in situation where they might be injured either by themselves or other people. Most coutries do not allow epiletics to drive.
            Epileptic attack can be control by giving anticonvulsant drugs at times when seizures most often occur. These drugs are depressants and have the disadvantage of making the patient less mentally alert than usual.

Saturday, 3 September 2011

Causes of Stroke and effect

A stroke result from a defect in the blood supply to the brain. The most sudden and severe form is a ruptured blood vessels in the brain causing cerebral haemoorrhage {bleading in the brain}. Blood vessels In the brain may become blocked by an embolism, that is, a small clot of blood that has become dislodge from other part of the body. The arteries of the brain may themselves developed thickened walls due to arthroscleros and gradually become  blocked.
            When brain cells are deprived from the glucose and oxygen normally supply by the blood vessels, they stop working. As a result, the part of the body normally control by the affected part of  brain cannot function and so become paralysed. Usually, this affect the face, arm, leg on one  siide of the body only: the side opposite to the damaged brain. If the speech centre is involved, the patient may loose power of speech, or the ability to form words distinctly.

            Stroke usually affect those people  who are over the age of 50. The damage brain cell do not recover, but this need not result in permanent paralysis if other brain cell take over. With help, e.g. physiotheraphy, the patient usually regains the use of the affected organs, although not to the full extent.

Friday, 2 September 2011

The virus which causes Rabies

The virus which causes rabies is present in a varieties of wild and domestic animals. It is usually trnsmitted to human as a result of bite from an infected dog.The dog’s salivva contain the viruses and these enter the wounded tissues, travel up the nerve and invade the spina-chord and brain. The symptoms which usually appear in 1-4 months after being bitten, are high temperature, delirium, convulsion, paralysis and death.The painful contration of the throat muscles when trying to drink water, gives the diseases it other name “Hydrophobia”, which means fear of water . Once the symtoms have develop there is no cure and their resul is fatal.
            There is a vacines against the viruses, prepared from sheep’s brain or duck egg treated with viruses. Unfortunately,the vaccines carries a risk of causing inflamation of the brain {encphlities} and it is used unless a person receive a bite from an animal suspected to be, or later prove to be infected by Rabies. In this case anti-rabies serum is injected at once, follow by the injection of the vaccines everyday for fourteen days. A vaccine prepare from human tissue-culture is more effective  and carries less risk of harmfull side-effect, but it is very expensive.
            If the animal which gave the bite still alive after seven days, it is most unlikely to have being carrying the virus rabies, so the treat of the patient can now be stopped.

Thursday, 25 August 2011

Tetanus [lock-jaw]: How it penetrate the body

Tetanus [lock-jaw]
If Clostridium tetani bacteria get into a deep wound they reproduce but do not invade the tissues. They do, however, produce a toxin which is extremely poisonous. This toxin passes up the motor nerve fibre to the spinal chord. Here, it does not paralyzed the motor nerve but makes them extremely sensitive, so that the slightest stimulus sets off a reflex contraction of the muscles. This may cause spasmodic twitching or strong, sustains contractions. An early symptom is often a spasm of the jaw muscles which makes it difficult to open the Jaw. This symptom gives the illness its popular name of “lock-jaw “. However, the convulsion may affect nearly all the body muscles and be so severe that the patient cannot breathe. If the patient can be kept alive for 3-4 weeks, they will get better of their own accord. The patients need to be watch all the time to help the breathing if necessary and to make sure that if they vomit the airway does not become blocked.
            The drugs used are [a] Antibiotics to attack the clostridium bacteria in the wound, [b] sedatives to suppress the convulsions and, [c] an anti-toxin to neutralize the Toxin.
The anti-toxin is prepared by injecting a horse with diluted tetanus toxin. The horse makes an antitoxin which can be extracted from its blood serum and injected into humans. The anti-toxin cannot reach the toxin already in the nerve system but it does the neutralize any toxin circulating in the bloodstream.
The best time to use the anti-toxin is immediately after receiving a wound which is likely to have become contaminated with soil or animal faeces. In the case, the anti-toxin will neutralize any tetanus toxin in the blood before the toxin can reach the nerve. The tetanus anti-toxin is eliminated from the in a week or two.
            There is a danger of an allergic reaction to the horse serum, so a skin test with a small amount of serum is necessary before injecting a larger dose. If the skin shows an inflammatory reaction to the serum anti-toxin is not used. Anti-toxin prepared from human serum is far less to provoke an, allergic reaction.
            The Clostridium tetani bacteria occur in the faeces of cow, horses, dog and, rarely man, and the bacteria spores can survive in the soil. People working on the land or with animals are therefore the most likely to contract the disease if  they cut themselves. People who do not wear the shoes are also at risk. The use of animal dung to treat wounds or rubbing on the cut umbilical cord of new born babies is a highly undesirable practice because of the risk of infection with Clostridium.
            The most effective way of preventing tetanus is by Immunization. A harmless form of the tetanus toxin is called a texoid, can be prepared. When this is injected, the body makes an anti-toxin. Everyone should be immunized against tetanus, regardless of age, but it is especially important for people who work with soil and domestic animals. Pregnant women should be immunized early in pregnancy and children at six months.
            Immunity is not long –lasting and does not develop after only one inoculation. So, a series of anti- tetanus injections are needed. The first two are given four weeks apart, followed by a third, 8-12 months later. After this, ‘booster’ injection are needed every ten years.